Main Index

Italian instrumental ensemble music, 1580-1630 scores

Throughout the first eighty years of music printing, publications of music for instrumental ensembles was relatively rare, around or less than 1% of all prints. This began to change in the 1580s on with the publication of the instrumental canzona.

The published instrumental canzona came out of two traditions: organists in northern Italy had used the mid 16th century French chanson as a model for abstract improvisation. The initial theme of many chansons, with a long initial note followed by short repeated notes of the same pitch, because a standard motif in many canzonas. Other features of the Chanson that were often followed in the canzona included the light, quick textures, polyphonic imitation of a simple theme in all the voice, and clearly delineated sections.

Another tradition contributing to the new instrumental repertoire was the ricercar. From around the middle of the 16th century on, there had been publications of lute, keyboard, and occasionally instrumental ensemble (published in partbooks) of pieces of a more intellectual bent, where usually a single musical idea was explored within piece, using techniques of pure counterpoint: inversion, augmentation, diminution, etc.

The first published instrumental canzona that remains extant remains extant was found in Nicola Vicentino's fifth book of madrigals in 1572. At the end of the collection was a piece labeled "canzone da sonare" ("song to play"). In the next few years, occasionally instrumental pieces could be found at the end of collections otherwise devoted to vocal compositions, such as Ingegneri's second book of madrigals a 4 voce, which contained two pieces labeled "aria di canzon francese per sonare" ("french song for playing"). In 1582, the first collection devoted to the genre was published, Florentio Maschera's Libro primo de canzoni da sonare a quattro voce, which proved to be very popular, going through multiple reprintings. Manuscript copies also exist in Torino of Maschera's pieces entabulated in German organ tablature, and in Bologna in partitura form.

Following Maschera's publication, there were a handful of similar publications in the 1580s, several more in the 1590s, and dozens in the period of 1600-1630. Typical collections often contained pieces both of the canzona/chanson tradition as well as the ricercar type of piece. Most were published in partbooks, labeled "per ogni sorte di strumenti" (for every sort of instruments), and were apparently used for both ensemble and keyboard (with keyboard players making their own intabulations in partitura, keyboard tablature, or the more familiar two-stave form). A few publications included both partitura and partbooks, and some, aimed more at keyboard players, were only in partitura (Frescobaldi preferred this form) or two-stave keyboard tabulations.

Though the genre quickly lost popularity after 1630, its name survived for abstract instrumental compositions. The canzona per sonare ("song for playing") later became the "canzona sonata" (played song) and that eventually morphed into simply "sonata" (something that is "played").

A note on terminology: Canzona simply means "song" in Italian, and is a variation of the modern standard Italian canzone. Both "canzona" and "canzone" were used interchangeably in the period, and there were many publications that used "canzone" to mean simply "song", an Italian-texted composition of lighter form than the more serious "madrigale". Other publications used "canzonetta/canzonette/" or "canzonet", the Italian apocopic form, which also became popular in English (pluralized with "canzonets"). The plural of "canzona" as well as "canzone" was usually "canzoni", with "canzone" being relatively rare, though not unheard of. "Canzona" is preferred by musicologists for discussion the instrumental genre, with "canzone" being used for lighter vocal pieces today.

Other terms occasionally used in the period included "fantasia"/"fantasie" and "capriccio"/"capricci".

"Sonare" is of course a variant of the modern standard Italian "suonare" ("to play"). "Sonata" is the feminine participle of the verb, which was to become the simple noun for the genre of instrumental composition.

The term "canzona" or "canzone" should also not be confused with the serious poetic form, with its complicated rhyme scheme, that arose in the 12th century. Madrigal books often contained multiple grouped madrigals using canzone by Petrarca and others. These were typically the most serious of poetry, and the compositions were prestige pieces by composers.

References:

Hawthorne Early Music editions: canzona scores
ComposerTitleSubitleLanguageModeFiles
Giulio Mussi da Lodi (fl.1619-1625) Canzon 'La Meduna' instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Canzon prima instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Canzon prima a 3 canto e due bassi instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Recercar terzo instrumental Phrygian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Recercar primo instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Ricercar IV sopra mi-re-fa-mi instrumental Phrygian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Canzon prima instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Recercar secondo instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Fantasia 12 sopra quattro soggietti instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Fantasia 11 sopra quattro soggietti instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Fantasia 9 sopra tre soggietti instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Fantasia 1 sopra un suggietto instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Fantasia 8 sopra tre soggietti instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Fantasia 12 sopra quattro soggietti instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Maria Trabaci (c.1575-1647) Canzona francesa I instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Lodovico Viadana (c.1560-1627) Canzon francese instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (c.1560-1627) La Bergamasca instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (c.1560-1627) La Napolitana instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (c.1560-1627) La Fiorentina instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Gioseffo Guami (1542-1611) Canzon decimasettima instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Canzon vigesimaprima instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Costanzo Antegni (1549-1624) Canzon nona La battera instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Pietro Lappi (c.1575-c.1630) Canzon undecima La serafina instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon settima La mazzuola instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Giovanni Battista Grillo (late 16c-1622) Canzon quartadecima Capricio instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Gioseffo Guami (1542-1611) Canzon sesta instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (1557-1617) Canzon vigesimaottava Sol sol la sol fa mi instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (1557-1617) Canzon terza instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1557-1612) Canzon prima La Spiritata instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Orindio Bartolini (c.1580-1640) Canzon trigesima instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Giovanni Battista Grillo (late 16c-1622) Canzon quintadecima instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Battista Grillo (late 16c-1622) Canzon sestadecima instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon ottava La fontana instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (1557-1617) Canzon quarta instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Canzon terzadecima instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Costanzo Antegni (1549-1624) Canzon vigesima La Morando instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (1557-1617) Canzon seconda instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Pietro Lappi (c.1575-c.1630) Canzon duodecima La alla instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Tiburto Massaino (c.1550-1609) Canzon trigesimaterza per otto tromboni instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) Canzon decimaottava a4 e a5 si placet instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) Canzon quinta instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Luzzasco Luzzaschi (c.1545-1607) Canzon decima instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Gioseffo Guami (1542-1611) Canzon decimanona instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) Canzon vigesimaterza instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Bastian Chilese (fl.1608) Canzon vigesimaseconda instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Luzzasco Luzzaschi (c.1545-1607) Ricercare del primo tuono instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Anonymous Fantasia Capriccio, 2 toni instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) Canzon à 4 Torna Crequilon instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) Canzon à 4 L'Olico instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Anonymous Canzon 'Las voules' instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1554-1612) Canzon I instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1547-1612) Canzon quarti toni instrumental Phrygian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1547-1612) Canzon noni toni instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1547-1612) Canzon duodecimi toni instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1547-1612) Canzon duodecimi toni I à 10 instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1547-1612) Canzon primi toni à 10 instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1547-1612) Canzon primi toni à 8 instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Francesco Cavalli (1602-1676) Canzon à 8 instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) Canzon Prima La Bertozza instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Agostini Soderini (fl.1598-1608) La Scaramucia instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Agostini Soderini (fl.1598-1608) La Panzana instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Agostini Soderini (fl.1598-1608) La Scotta instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Agostini Soderini (fl.1598-1608) La Galarata instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Agostini Soderini (fl.1598-1608) La Ducalina instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Agostini Soderini (fl.1598-1608) La Panigarola instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Agostini Soderini (fl.1598-1608) La Secca instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Agostini Soderini (fl.1598-1608) La Taverna instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Agostini Soderini (fl.1598-1608) La Brivia instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Francesco Usper (c.1560-1641) Ricercar terzo instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Francesco Usper (c.1560-1641) Ricercar sesto instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Francesco Usper (c.1560-1641) Aria Francese II instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Francesco Usper (c.1560-1641) Aria Francese I instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Francesco Usper (c.1560-1641) Ricercar secondo instrumental Phrygian Score + Parts
Maurizio Cazzati (1616-1678) Capriccio sopra sette note instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Paolo Cima (c.1570-1630) Ricercar primo instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Giovanni Paolo Cima (c.1570-1630) Ricercar secondo instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Paolo Cima (c.1570-1630) Capriccio 8 instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Paolo Cima (c.1570-1630) Fantasia 7 instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Cornelis Schuyt (1557-1616) Canzon 'La Barca' instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Antonio Troilo (fl.1606-1608) Canzon Seconda instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Troilo (fl.1606-1608) Canzon Quarta instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Troilo (fl.1606-1608) Canzon Prima instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Troilo (fl.1606-1608) Canzon Terza instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Troilo (fl.1606-1608) Canzon Nona instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Durante instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Maggia instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Martinenga instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Gambara instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La nuvolina instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Avogadra instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Averolda instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Solda instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Barbisona instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Canobbia instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Robbata instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Bevilacqua instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Furta instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Ugona instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Porta instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Bevilacqua instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Canobbia instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Fenarola instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Floriano Canale (c.1550-c.1603) La Stella instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Annibale Zuccaro (fl.1603-1609) Ricercar I instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Lodovico Agostini (1534-1590) Fantasia da sonar instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Marc'Antonio Ingegneri (c.1535-1592) Aria di canzon Francese per sonar del ottavo tono instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Marc'Antonio Ingegneri (c.1535-1592) Aria di canzon Francese per sonar del primo tono instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Adriano Banchieri (1568-1634) Fantasia terza instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Adriano Banchieri (1568-1634) Fantasia prima instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Adriano Banchieri (1568-1634) Fantasia decima nona instrumental Phrygian Score + Parts
Adriano Banchieri (1568-1634) Fantasia 2 instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Adriano Banchieri (1568-1634) Canzon Prima La Rovattina instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Adriano Banchieri (1568-1634) Canzona sesta 'sopra vestiva i colli' L'Alcenagina instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Johann Staden (1581-1634) Canzon Prima Toni instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Vigesima instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Duodecima L'Uggiera instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Terza instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Quarta instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Sesta instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Decimaottava La Villachiara instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Undecima L'Averolda instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Quinta La Maggia instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Decimaquinta instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Decimaquarta instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Decimaterza La Girella instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Seconda La Martinenga instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Decimasettima instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Decimanona instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Ottava instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Nona La Duranda instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Vigesimaprima instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Prima La Capriola instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Settima Al S. Pompeo Coradello instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Decima La Rosa instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Florentio Maschera (c.1541-1584) Canzon Decimasesta instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Zucchella instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Mortara instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Morona instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Pera instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Dagoldina instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Malvezza instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Claudia instrumental Phrygian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Fachinetta instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Portia instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Saronna instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Patuzza instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Pozzobonella instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Malfatta instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Cornala instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Bellotta instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Montina instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) L'Antegnata instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Bagliona instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) L'Albergona instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Antonio Mortaro (fl.1587-1619) La Tergnana instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Andrea Gabrieli (c.1532-1585) Ricercar del secondo tuono instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Andrea Gabrieli (c.1532-1585) Ricercar del sesto tuono instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Andrea Gabrieli (c.1532-1585) Ricercar del primo tuono instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Andrea Gabrieli (c.1532-1585) Ricercar del duodecimo tuono instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
tabulato da Andrea Gabrieli (c.1532-1585) Ricercar 'Anchor che co'l partire' instrumental Phrygian Score + Parts
Sebastian Raval (c.1550-1604) Ricercar del nono tuono sopra una stessa fuga instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Sebastian Raval (c.1550-1604) Ricercar del decimo tuono instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Sebastian Raval (c.1550-1604) Ricercar del primo tuono instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Salamone Rossi (c.1570-1630) Canzon II per sonar instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Salamone Rossi (c.1570-1630) Canzon per sonar à 4 instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Tarquino Merula (c.1594-1665) L'Ariberta instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Solcia instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Lafranchina instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Bertani instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Bignani instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Morari instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Foresta instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Verità instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Nicolina instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Fina instrumental Hypodorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Nova instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Cavaccio da Bergamo (1556-1626) La Brigientia instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Pietro Lappi (c.1575-1630) La penolaccia instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Pietro Lappi (c.1575-1630) La fontana instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Pietro Lappi (c.1575-1630) L'Arborea instrumental Mixolydian Score + Parts
Pietro Lappi (c.1575-1630) L'Ugona instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Pietro Lappi (c.1575-1630) La conta instrumental Ionian Score + Parts
Giovanni Domenico Rognoni Taeggio (?-c.1624) La Gallia instrumental Dorian Score + Parts
Giovanni Domenico Rognoni Taeggio (?-c.1624) La Lombarda instrumental Dorian Score + Parts




Index files inspired by by Peter Payzant